Cellular Restore Serum
CLINICAL STUDIES ON THE FOLLOWING INGREDIENTS:
Maple Leaf Complex:
Acer Saccharum (Sugar Maple) Leaf extract
Acer Rubrum (Red Maple) leaf extract
Acer Pensylvanicum (Stripped Maple) Leaf extract
Cytoprotective effects of a proprietary red maple leaf extract and its major polyphenol, ginnalin A, against hydrogen peroxide and methylglyoxal induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes
Phytochemicals from functional foods are common ingredients in dietary supplements and cosmetic products for anti-skin aging effects due to their antioxidant activities. A proprietary red maple (Acer rubrum) leaf extract (Maplifa™) and its major phenolic compound, ginnalin A (GA), have been reported to show antioxidant, anti-melanogenesis, and anti-glycation effects but their protective effects against oxidative stress in human skin cells remain unknown. Herein, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Maplifa™ and GA against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). H2O2 and MGO (both at 400 μM) induced toxicity in HaCaT cells and reduced their viability to 59.2 and 61.6%, respectively. Treatment of Maplifa™ (50 μg mL-1) and GA (50 μM) increased the viability of H2O2- and MGO-treated cells by 22.0 and 15.5%, respectively. Maplifa™ and GA also showed cytoprotective effects by reducing H2O2-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells by 8.0 and 7.2%, respectively. The anti-apoptotic effect of Maplifa™ was further supported by the decreased levels of apoptosis associated enzymes including caspases-3/7 and -8 in HaCaT cells by 49.5 and 19.0%, respectively. In addition, Maplifa™ (50 μg mL-1) and GA (50 μM) reduced H2O2- and MGO-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) by 84.1 and 56.8%, respectively. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis showed that Maplifa™ and GA reduced MGO-induced total cellular ROS production while increasing mitochondria-derived ROS production in HaCaT cells. The cytoprotective effects of Maplifa™ and GA in human keratinocytes support their potential utilization for cosmetic and/or dermatological applications.
Source: Chang Liu, Hao Guo, Joel A. Dain, Yinsheng Wan, Xing-Hua Gao, Hong-Duo Chen, Navindra P. Seeram, and Hang Ma. “Cytoprotective effects of a proprietary red maple leaf extract and its major polyphenol, ginnalin A, against hydrogen peroxide and methylglyoxal induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes” Food & Function (2020): 11(6):5105-5114.
Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil
Transdermal delivery of amino acids and antioxidants enhance collagen synthesis: in vivo and in vitro studies
One of the most visible changes associated with the aging process in humans relates to a progressive thinning of the skin. This results from a decline in both collagen and glycosaminoglycans, as well as from changes in their chemical structure and 3-dimentional organization. Transdermal administration of antioxidants, a -lipoic acid (LA) (0.5%) and proanthocyanidin PA) (0.3%) in a standard cosmetic vehicle base formulation supplemented with 2% benzyl alcohol as a penetration enhancer, a mixture of essential amino acids (0.2%), significantly enhanced collagen synthesis and deposition. The amino acid mixture was designed to mimic serum concentrations, with supplemental methionine added to provide additional sulfur. The histological appearance of the skin of mature female rats treated in this fashion reflected the increased deposition of collagen in the dermis as well as a thickened epidermal layer. The changes do not seem to be mediated by TGF- ss or PDGF, two growth factors known to stimulate collagen synthesis. At lower concentrations, a -lipoic acid did not affect cell proliferation but at higher doses, while it had an inhibitory effect on (3)H-thimidine uptake, it did enhance collagen production. Pronanthocyanidin did not affect cell proliferation but significantly increased collagen synthesis by cultured fibroblasts.
Source: Bo Han and Marcel E. Nimni. “Transdermal delivery of amino acids and antioxidants enhance collagen synthesis: in vivo and in vitro studies” Connective Tissue Research (2005): 46(4-5):251-7.
Hippophae Rhamnoides Oil (Sea Buckthorn Berry + Seed)
Abundance of active ingredients in sea-buckthorn oil
Vegetable oils are obtained by mechanical extraction or cold pressing of various parts of plants, most often: seeds, fruits, and drupels. Chemically, these oils are compounds of the ester-linked glycerol and higher fatty acids with long aliphatic chain hydrocarbons (min. C14:0). Vegetable oils have a variety of properties, depending on their percentage of saturation. This article describes sea-buckthorn oil, which is extracted from the well characterized fruit and seeds of sea buckthorn. The plant has a large number of active ingredients the properties of which are successfully used in the cosmetic industry and in medicine. Valuable substances contained in sea-buckthorn oil play an important role in the proper functioning of the human body and give skin a beautiful and healthy appearance. A balanced composition of fatty acids give the number of vitamins or their range in this oil and explains its frequent use in cosmetic products for the care of dry, flaky or rapidly aging skin. Moreover, its unique unsaturated fatty acids, such as palmitooleic acid (omega-7) and gamma-linolenic acid (omega-6), give sea-buckthorn oil skin regeneration and repair properties. Sea-buckthorn oil also improves blood circulation, facilitates oxygenation of the skin, removes excess toxins from the body and easily penetrates through the epidermis. Because inside the skin the gamma-linolenic acid is converted to prostaglandins, sea-buckthorn oil protects against infections, prevents allergies, eliminates inflammation and inhibits the aging process. With close to 200 properties, sea-buckthorn oil is a valuable addition to health and beauty products.
Source: Aleksandra Zielińska and Izabela Nowak. “Abundance of active ingredients in sea-buckthorn oil” Lipids in Health and Disease (2017): 16: 95.
Psoralea Cordifolia (Babchi) Seed Oil
Bakuchiol: a retinol-like functional compound revealed by gene expression profiling and clinically proven to have anti-aging effects
Objective: The study was undertaken to compare the skin care related activities of retinol and bakuchiol, a potential alternative to retinoids. Retinol is a pivotal regulator of differentiation and growth of developing as well as adult skin. Retinoic acid is the major physiologically active metabolite of retinol regulating gene expression through retinoic acid receptor - dependant and independent pathways.
Methods: Comparative gene expression profiling of both substances in the EpiDerm FT full thickness skin substitute model was undertaken. Furthermore, type I, III and IV collagen, as well as aquaporin 3 expression was analyzed by ELISA and/or histochemistry in human dermal fibroblasts and/or Epiderm FT skin substitutes.
Results: Bakuchiol is a meroterpene phenol abundant in seeds and leaves of the plant Psoralea corylifolia. We present evidence that bakuchiol, having no structural resemblance to retinoids, can function as a functional analogue of retinol. Volcano plots showed great overall similarity of retinol and bakuchiol effects on the gene expression profile. This similarity was confirmed by the side-by-side comparison of the modulation of individual genes, as well as on the protein level by ELISA and histochemistry. Retinol-like functionality was further confirmed for the upregulation of types I and IV collagen in DNA microarray study and also show stimulation of type III collagen in the mature fibroblast model. Bakuchiol was also formulated into a finished skin care product and was tested in clinical case study by twice-a-day facial application. The results showed that, after 12 weeks treatment, significant improvement in lines and wrinkles, pigmentation, elasticity, firmness and overall reduction in photo-damage was observed, without usual retinol therapy-associated undesirable effects.
Conclusion: Based on these data, we propose that bakuchiol can function as an anti-ageing compound through retinol-like regulation of gene expression.
Source: R. K. Chaudhuri and K. Bojanowski. “Bakuchiol: a retinol-like functional compound revealed by gene expression profiling and clinically proven to have anti-aging effects” International Journal of Cosmetic Science (2014): 36(3):221-30.
Rosa Canina Seed Oil (Rosehip)
The effectiveness of a standardized rose hip powder, containing seeds and shells of Rosa canina, on cell longevity, skin wrinkles, moisture, and elasticity
Objective: To evaluate the effects of a rose hip powder (Hyben Vital®) made from seeds and shells on cell senescence, skin wrinkling, and aging.
Methods: A total of 34 healthy subjects, aged 35–65 years, with wrinkles on the face (crow’s-feet) were subjected to a randomized and double-blinded clinical study of the effects of the rose hip powder, as compared to astaxanthin, a well-known remedy against wrinkles. During the 8-week study, half of the participants ingested the standardized rose hip product, while the other half ingested astaxanthin. Objective measurements of facial wrinkles, skin moisture, and elasticity were made by using Visioscan, Corneometer, and Cutometer at the beginning of the study, after 4 weeks, and after 8 weeks. Evaluation of participant satisfaction of both supplements was assessed using questionnaires. In addition, the effect of the rose hip preparation on cell longevity was measured in terms of leakage of hemoglobin through red cell membranes (hemolytic index) in blood samples kept in a blood bank for 5 weeks. Significance of all values was attained with P≤0.05.
Results: In the double-blinded study, the rose hip group showed statistically significant improvements in crow’s-feet wrinkles (P<0.05), skin moisture (P<0.05), and elasticity (P<0.05) after 8 weeks of treatment. A similar improvement was observed for astaxanthin, with P-values 0.05, 0.001, and 0.05. Likewise, both groups expressed equal satisfaction with the results obtained in their self-assessment. The rose hip powder further resulted in increased cell longevity of erythrocyte cells during storage for 5 weeks in a blood bank.
Conclusion: Results suggest that intake of the standardized rose hip powder (Hyben Vital®) improves aging-induced skin conditions. The apparent stabilizing effects of the rose hip product on cell membranes of stored erythrocyte cells observed in this study may contribute to improve the cell longevity and obstructing skin aging.
Source: L. Phetcharat, K. Wongsuphasawat, and K. Winther. “The effectiveness of a standardized rose hip powder, containing seeds and shells of Rosa canina, on cell longevity, skin wrinkles, moisture, and elasticity”Clinical Interventions in Aging 2015; 10: 1849–1856.
Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil
Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils
Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter). Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.
1.4. Skin Inflammation and Proliferation. The skin encounters daily onslaught by exogenous stimuli. Noxious stimuli sometimes result in injuries and/or infections, leading to wound, inflammatory dermatoses, skin aging, or skin carcinogenesis. Inflammation takes place in response to these damages to the normal skin barrier. At the molecular level, the inflammatory response participates in a series of complex repair pathways related to the innate immune response, cutaneous differentiation, and skin barrier repair.* Initially, upon inflammatory response, the keratinocytes and the innate immune cells such as leukocytes (PMNs, macrophages, and lymphocytes), mast cells, and dendritic cells are activated.* Secreted cytokines such as IL-1α, TNF-α and IL-6 induce the chemokines of chemotaxis that attract the immune cells to the site of injury and infection. ROS are produced by activated keratinocytes and immune cells. Immune cells also secrete elastases and proteinases.* The inflammatory microenvironment contributes to tissue repair and infection prevention/control. However, the chemokines produced by activated keratinocytes and immune cells are also able to damage the skin tissue in proximity to the target of the inflammatory response. Therefore, the intensity of inflammation and the time to resolution are critical in avoiding or at least limiting damage to normal skin tissue.* Thus, modulation of inflammation is important in maintaining skin homeostasis. If the initial acute response fails to resolve the causative factor, then the inflammatory response will continue and the subsequent inflammatory microenvironment will disrupt skin homeostasis. If the dysregulation of inflammatory skin response persists, chronic inflammatory dermatoses such as AD or psoriasis will arise.*
In the epidermis, the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is highly active. Linoleic acid, the major 18-carbon n-6 PUFA in normal epidermis, in the epidermis is metabolized via the 15-lipoxygenase pathway mainly into 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, which possesses anti-proliferative properties.* Dietary deficiency of linoleic acid results in a scaly and pruritic skin disorder similar to AD in hairless mice.* Arachidonic acid, the second major PUFA in the skin, is another substrate of 15-lipoxygenase, by which it is transformed to 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE). 15-HETE specifically inhibits leukotriene B4-induced chemotaxis of human PMNs.* However, arachidonic acid is mainly metabolized via the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway into the prostaglandins E(2), F(2α), and D(2).* At low concentrations, the prostaglandins function to modulate skin homeostasis, whereas, at high concentrations, they induce skin inflammation and hyperproliferation of keratinocytes.* Moreover, squamous cell carcinoma of skin is the neoplasm that consistently overexpresses COX-2 in the parenchyma and the mesenchyma of premalignant and malignant lesions.* Increased levels of prostaglandins E(2) and F(2α) in premalignant and/or malignant epithelial skin cancers are due to the constitutive upregulation of enzymes such as COX-2, causing increased prostaglandin biosynthesis and the downregulation of 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), which is involved in the inactivation of prostaglandins.* Thus, topical supplementation with plant oils that provide local cutaneous anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative metabolites could serve as the monotherapy or as adjuncts to standard therapeutic regimens for the management and prevention of both inflammatory skin disorders and actinic keratoses.
1.5. Reactive Oxidative Stress, Skin Aging and Skin Cancer. The aging of our skin can be discussed as two entities: chronological and environmentally- influenced aging.* Clinically, chronological and environmentally influenced aging show skin changes including thinning, loss of elasticity, roughness, wrinkling, increased dryness, and impairment of the skin barrier. Chronological aging depends on a decrease in cellular replacement (senescence) of the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis, but also from impairment in the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (e.g., collagen bundles and elastic fibers).* The second type of skin aging is mediated by extrinsic factors such as UV radiation, air pollution, smoking, changes in external temperature, and other agents of skin aging exposome.* Photoaging by chronic exposure to UV radiation is the best characterized. Clinical signs of photoaging include dyspigmentation (mostly lentigo and freckling), solar elastosis, actinic keratosis, and seborrheic keratosis.* Photoaging is attributed to photo-oxidative damage to skin, mainly by high levels of ROS induced by UV radiation.* ROS result in collagen degradation and its accumulation in the dermis, also known as solar elastosis. ROS levels are regulated by antioxidant enzymes in skin such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH). If anti-oxidant defenses are overwhelmed after extensive UV light exposure, ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defenses in the skin.* This causes oxidative stress, which damages skin cells and alters their gene expression, leading to photoaging, but also promoting cutaneous carcinogenesis (non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers).*
Source: Tzu-Kai Lin, Lily Zhong, and Juan Luis Santiago. “Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils” International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2018): 19(1): 70.
Tocopherol (Vitamin E)
Vitamin E in dermatology
Vitamin E is an important fat-soluble antioxidant and has been in use for more than 50 years in dermatology. It is an important ingredient in many cosmetic products. It protects the skin from various deleterious effects due to solar radiation by acting as a free-radical scavenger. Experimental studies suggest that vitamin E has antitumorigenic and photoprotective properties. There is a paucity of controlled clinical studies providing a rationale for well-defined dosages and clinical indications of vitamin E usage in dermatological practice. The aim of this article is to review the cosmetic as well as clinical implications of vitamin E in dermatology.
Topical Vitamin E In Dermatology: Topical vitamin E has emerged as a popular treatment for a number of skin disorders owing to its antioxidant properties. It has been seen that reactive oxygen species have the ability to alter the biosynthesis of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in skin.* Most of the over-the-counter antiaging creams contain 0.5%–1% of vitamin E.
One of the most popular applications of vitamin E is the treatment of burns, surgical scars, and wounds. However, studies looking at the efficacy of vitamin E in the treatment of burns and scars have been disappointing.*
Topical vitamin E has also been found to be effective in granuloma annulare.* Vitamin E is one of the ingredients in over-the-counter treatments of skin aging.* Topical application of the gel containing 2% phytonadione, 0.1% retinol, 0.1% vitamin C, and 0.1% vitamin E has been seen to be fairly or moderately effective in reducing dark under-eye circles, especially in cases of hemostasis.*
Source: Mohammad Abid Keen and Iffat Hassan. “Vitamin E in dermatology” Indian Dermatology Online (2016): 7(4): 311–315.
Myrciaria Dubia (Camu Camu)
Ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and other phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of two powder products from camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia)
The aims of this study were the evaluation of polyphenols and vitamin C content, and antioxidant capacity of dehydrated pulp powder and the dried flour obtained from the skin and seeds residue remaining after pulp preparation from camu-camu (Myrciaria dudia). Fifty-three different phenolics were characterised by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS and UPLC-HR-QTOF-MS-MS. The phenolic content of camu-camu flour was higher than that of the pulp powder (4007.95 mg/100 g vs. 48.54 mg/100 g). In both products the flavonol myricetin and conjugates, ellagic acid and conjugates and ellagitannins were detected. Cyanidin 3-glucoside, and quercetin and its glycosides were only found in the pulp powder, while proanthocyanidins were only present in the flour (3.5 g/100 g, mean degree of polymerisation 3). The vitamin C content was lower in pulp powder (3.5%) than in the flour (9.1%). The radical-scavenging capacity of both powders was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays, and was higher for camu-camu flour as could be expected for its higher phenolics and vitamin C content. Comparative analyses with fresh camu-camu berries indicate that some transformations occur during processing. Analysis of fresh berries showed that ellagic acid derivatives and ellagitannins were mainly present in the seeds, while proanthocyanidins were present both in the seeds and skin.
Source: Daniela Fracassetti, Carlos Costa, Leila Moulay, and Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán. “Ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and other phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of two powder products from camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia)” Food Chemistry (2013): 139(1-4):578-88.